This unit is a breadth study in change from Paper 2, Section B and it covers the major changes in China in the twentieth century from the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 until the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989. We start the unit by seeking to understand why the 1911 Revolution failed to reform China and how China descended into Warlordism. Next, we analyse the growth of the Kuomintang (KMT) Party and early Chinese Communist Party (CCP), looking at how they cooperated to defeat the Warlords. The First Chinese Civil War is also covered along with the Sino-Japanese War and Second Chinese Civil War. The second half of the unit examines how Mao Zedong and the CCP consolidated their hold over China. We also ask to what extent were their policies successful. Lastly, we chart the rise of Deng Xiaoping and evaluate the impact of his modernising reforms on China, finishing with the growth of the Democracy movement and its ultimate silencing in 1989.