This section focuses on developments in China, Japan and Korea between the mid-19th century and early 20th century. It examines the largely unsuccessful attempts at modernization and reform in China. The conservative and popular opposition to change was demonstrated by the failures of the Self-Strengthening Movement and the Hundred Days’ Reform, and by the violence of the Boxer Rebellion. In contrast, Japan modernized rapidly and successfully during this period to emerge as a country that challenged the power of the western nations in Asia. Caught between the emerging powers in the region, Korea fought hard to maintain its independence before being formally annexed by Japan in 1910.